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The website cannot function properly without these cookies. Since the base of a thunderstorm is usually negatively charged, this is where most CG lightning originates.
This region is typically at the elevation where freezing occurs within the cloud. Freezing, combined with collisions between ice and water, appears to be a critical part of the initial charge development and separation process.
During wind-driven collisions, ice crystals tend to develop a positive charge, while a heavier, slushy mixture of ice and water called graupel develops a negative charge.
Updrafts within a storm cloud separate the lighter ice crystals from the heavier graupel, causing the top region of the cloud to accumulate a positive space charge while the lower level accumulates a negative space charge.
Because the concentrated charge within the cloud must exceed the insulating properties of air, and this increases proportionally to the distance between the cloud and the ground, the proportion of CG strikes versus cloud-to-cloud CC or in-cloud IC discharges becomes greater when the cloud is closer to the ground.
In order for an electrostatic discharge to occur, two preconditions are necessary: firstly, a sufficiently high potential difference between two regions of space must exist, and secondly, a high-resistance medium must obstruct the free, unimpeded equalization of the opposite charges.
The atmosphere provides the electrical insulation, or barrier, that prevents free equalization between charged regions of opposite polarity.
It is well understood that during a thunderstorm there is charge separation and aggregation in certain regions of the cloud; however, the exact processes by which this occurs are not fully understood.
As a thundercloud moves over the surface of the Earth, an equal electric charge , but of opposite polarity, is induced on the Earth's surface underneath the cloud.
This is known as an image charge. The induced positive surface charge, when measured against a fixed point, will be small as the thundercloud approaches, increasing as the center of the storm arrives and dropping as the thundercloud passes.
The referential value of the induced surface charge could be roughly represented as a bell curve. The oppositely charged regions create an electric field within the air between them.
This electric field varies in relation to the strength of the surface charge on the base of the thundercloud — the greater the accumulated charge, the higher the electrical field.
The best studied and understood form of lightning is from cloud to ground CG. Although more common, intra-cloud IC and cloud-to-cloud CC flashes are very difficult to study given there are no "physical" points to monitor inside the clouds.
Also, given the very low probability of lightning will strike the same point repeatedly and consistently, scientific inquiry is difficult even in the areas of high CG frequency.
In a process not well understood, a bidirectional channel of ionized air, called a " leader ", is initiated between oppositely-charged regions in a thundercloud.
Leaders are electrically conductive channels of ionized gas that propagate through, or are otherwise attracted to, regions with a charge opposite of that of the leader tip.
The negative end of the bidirectional leader fills a positive charge region, also called a well, inside the cloud while the positive end fills a negative charge well.
Leaders often split, forming branches in a tree-like pattern. The resulting jerky movement of the leaders can be readily observed in slow-motion videos of lightning flashes.
It is possible for one end of the leader to fill the oppositely-charged well entirely while the other end is still active. When this happens, the leader end which filled the well may propagate outside of the thundercloud and result in either a cloud-to-air flash or a cloud-to-ground flash.
In a typical cloud-to-ground flash, a bidirectional leader initiates between the main negative and lower positive charge regions in a thundercloud.
The weaker positive charge region is filled quickly by the negative leader which then propagates toward the inductively-charged ground.
The positively and negatively charged leaders proceed in opposite directions, positive upwards within the cloud and negative towards the earth.
Both ionic channels proceed, in their respective directions, in a number of successive spurts. Each leader "pools" ions at the leading tips, shooting out one or more new leaders, momentarily pooling again to concentrate charged ions, then shooting out another leader.
The negative leader continues to propagate and split as it heads downward, often speeding up as it gets closer to the Earth's surface.
The electric current needed to establish the channel, measured in the tens or hundreds of amperes , is dwarfed by subsequent currents during the actual discharge.
Initiation of the lightning leaders is not well understood. The electric field strength within the thundercloud is not typically large enough to initiate this process by itself.
One theory postulates that showers of relativistic electrons are created by cosmic rays and are then accelerated to higher velocities via a process called runaway breakdown.
As these relativistic electrons collide and ionize neutral air molecules, they initiate leader formation.
Another theory involves locally enhanced electric fields being formed near elongated water droplets or ice crystals.
When a stepped leader approaches the ground, the presence of opposite charges on the ground enhances the strength of the electric field.
The electric field is strongest on grounded objects whose tops are closest to the base of the thundercloud, such as trees and tall buildings.
If the electric field is strong enough, a positively charged ionic channel, called a positive or upward streamer , can develop from these points.
This was first theorized by Heinz Kasemir. As negatively charged leaders approach, increasing the localized electric field strength, grounded objects already experiencing corona discharge exceed a threshold and form upward streamers.
Once a downward leader connects to an available upward leader, a process referred to as attachment, a low-resistance path is formed and discharge may occur.
Photographs have been taken in which unattached streamers are clearly visible. The unattached downward leaders are also visible in branched lightning, none of which are connected to the earth, although it may appear they are.
High-speed videos can show the attachment process in progress. Once a conductive channel bridges the air gap between the negative charge excess in the cloud and the positive surface charge excess below, there is a large drop in resistance across the lightning channel.
Electrons accelerate rapidly as a result in a zone beginning at the point of attachment, which expands across the entire leader network at up to one third of the speed of light.
A large electric charge flows along the plasma channel, from the cloud to the ground, neutralising the positive ground charge as electrons flow away from the strike point to the surrounding area.
This huge surge of current creates large radial voltage differences along the surface of the ground. Called step potentials, [ citation needed ] they are responsible for more injuries and deaths in groups of people or of other animals than the strike itself.
The electric current of the return stroke averages 30 kiloamperes for a typical negative CG flash, often referred to as "negative CG" lightning. In some cases, a ground to cloud GC lightning flash may originate from a positively charged region on the ground below a storm.
These discharges normally originate from the tops of very tall structures, such as communications antennas.
The massive flow of electric current occurring during the return stroke combined with the rate at which it occurs measured in microseconds rapidly superheats the completed leader channel, forming a highly electrically conductive plasma channel.
The core temperature of the plasma during the return stroke may exceed 50, K, causing it to radiate with a brilliant, blue-white color.
Once the electric current stops flowing, the channel cools and dissipates over tens or hundreds of milliseconds, often disappearing as fragmented patches of glowing gas.
The nearly instantaneous heating during the return stroke causes the air to expand explosively, producing a powerful shock wave which is heard as thunder.
High-speed videos examined frame-by-frame show that most negative CG lightning flashes are made up of 3 or 4 individual strokes, though there may be as many as Each re-strike is separated by a relatively large amount of time, typically 40 to 50 milliseconds, as other charged regions in the cloud are discharged in subsequent strokes.
Re-strikes often cause a noticeable " strobe light " effect. To understand why multiple return strokes utilize the same lightning channel, one needs to understand the behavior of positive leaders, which a typical ground flash effectively becomes following the negative leader's connection with the ground.
Positive leaders decay more rapidly than negative leaders do. For reasons not well understood, bidirectional leaders tend to initiate on the tips of the decayed positive leaders in which the negative end attempts to re-ionize the leader network.
These leaders, also called recoil leaders , usually decay shortly after their formation. When they do manage to make contact with a conductive portion of the main leader network, a return stroke-like process occurs and a dart leader travels across all or a portion of the length of the original leader.
The dart leaders making connections with the ground are what cause a majority of subsequent return strokes. Each successive stroke is preceded by intermediate dart leader strokes that have a faster rise time but lower amplitude than the initial return stroke.
Each subsequent stroke usually re-uses the discharge channel taken by the previous one, but the channel may be offset from its previous position as wind displaces the hot channel.
Since recoil and dart leader processes do not occur on negative leaders, subsequent return strokes very seldom utilize the same channel on positive ground flashes which are explained later in the article.
The electric current within a typical negative CG lightning discharge rises very quickly to its peak value in 1—10 microseconds, then decays more slowly over 50— microseconds.
The transient nature of the current within a lightning flash results in several phenomena that need to be addressed in the effective protection of ground-based structures.
Rapidly changing currents tend to travel on the surface of a conductor, in what is called the skin effect , unlike direct currents, which "flow-through" the entire conductor like water through a hose.
Hence, conductors used in the protection of facilities tend to be multi-stranded, with small wires woven together.
This increases the total bundle surface area in inverse proportion to the individual strand radius, for a fixed total cross-sectional area.
The rapidly changing currents also create electromagnetic pulses EMPs that radiate outward from the ionic channel.
This is a characteristic of all electrical discharges. The radiated pulses rapidly weaken as their distance from the origin increases.
However, if they pass over conductive elements such as power lines, communication lines, or metallic pipes, they may induce a current which travels outward to its termination.
The surge current is inversely related to the Surge impedance Devices known as surge protectors SPD or transient voltage surge suppressors TVSS attached in parallel with these lines can detect the lightning flash's transient irregular current, and, through alteration of its physical properties, route the spike to an attached earthing ground , thereby protecting the equipment from damage.
Three primary types of lightning are defined by the "starting" and "ending" points of a flash channel. There are variations of each type, such as "positive" versus "negative" CG flashes, that have different physical characteristics common to each which can be measured.
Different common names used to describe a particular lightning event may be attributed to the same or to different events. Cloud-to-ground CG lightning is a lightning discharge between a thundercloud and the ground.
It is initiated by a stepped leader moving down from the cloud, which is met by a streamer moving up from the ground. CG is the least common, but best understood of all types of lightning.
It is easier to study scientifically because it terminates on a physical object, namely the Earth, and lends itself to being measured by instruments on the ground.
Of the three primary types of lightning, it poses the greatest threat to life and property since it terminates or "strikes" the Earth.
The overall discharge termed a flash, is composed of a number of processes such as preliminary breakdown, stepped leaders, connecting leaders, return strokes, dart leaders, and subsequent return strokes.
Cloud-to-ground CG lightning is either positive or negative, as defined by the direction of the conventional electric current between cloud and ground.
Most CG lightning is negative, meaning that a negative charge is transferred to ground and electrons travel downward along the lightning channel conventionally the current flows from the ground to the cloud.
The reverse happens in a positive CG flash, where electrons travel upward along the lightning channel and a positive charge is transferred to the ground conventionally the current flows from the cloud to the ground.
There are six different mechanisms theorized to result in the formation of positive lightning. Contrary to popular belief, positive lightning flashes do not necessarily originate from the anvil or the upper positive charge region and strike a rain-free area outside of the thunderstorm.
This belief is based on the outdated idea that lightning leaders are unipolar and originate from their respective charge region.
Positive lightning strikes tend to be much more intense than their negative counterparts. As a result of their greater power, positive lightning strikes are considerably more dangerous than negative strikes.
Positive lightning produces both higher peak currents and longer continuing currents, making them capable of heating surfaces to much higher levels which increases the likelihood of a fire being ignited.
The long distances positive lightning can propagate through clear air explains why they are known as "bolts from the blue", giving no warning to observers.
Despite the popular misconception that these are positive lightning strikes due to them seemingly originating from the positive charge region, observations have shown that these are in fact negative flashes.
They begin as IC flashes within the cloud, the negative leader then exits the cloud from the positive charge region before propagating through clear air and striking the ground some distance away.
Positive lightning has also been shown to trigger the occurrence of upward lightning flashes from the tops of tall structures and is largely responsible for the initiation of sprites several tens of kilometers above ground level.
Positive lightning tends to occur more frequently in winter storms , as with thundersnow , during intense tornadoes  and in the dissipation stage of a thunderstorm.
Lightning discharges may occur between areas of cloud without contacting the ground. When it occurs between two separate clouds, it is known as cloud-to-cloud CC or inter-cloud lightning; when it occurs between areas of differing electric potential within a single cloud, it is known as intra-cloud IC lightning.
IC lightning is the most frequently occurring type. IC lightning most commonly occurs between the upper anvil portion and lower reaches of a given thunderstorm.
This lightning can sometimes be observed at great distances at night as so-called " sheet lightning ".
In such instances, the observer may see only a flash of light without hearing any thunder. Another term used for cloud—cloud or cloud—cloud—ground lightning is "Anvil Crawler", due to the habit of charge, typically originating beneath or within the anvil and scrambling through the upper cloud layers of a thunderstorm, often generating dramatic multiple branch strokes.
These are usually seen as a thunderstorm passes over the observer or begins to decay. The most vivid crawler behavior occurs in well developed thunderstorms that feature extensive rear anvil shearing.
Objects struck by lightning experience heat and magnetic forces of great magnitude. The heat created by lightning currents traveling through a tree may vaporize its sap, causing a steam explosion that bursts the trunk.
As lightning travels through sandy soil, the soil surrounding the plasma channel may melt, forming tubular structures called fulgurites.
Although 90 percent of people struck by lightning survive,  humans or animals struck by lightning may suffer severe injury due to internal organ and nervous system damage.
Buildings or tall structures hit by lightning may be damaged as the lightning seeks unintended paths to ground. By safely conducting a lightning strike to ground, a lightning protection system, usually incorporating at least one lightning rod , can greatly reduce the probability of severe property damage.
Lightning also serves an important role in the nitrogen cycle by oxidizing diatomic nitrogen in the air into nitrates which are deposited by rain and can fertilize the growth of plants and other organisms.
Due to the conductive properties of Aluminium alloy , the fuselage acts as a Faraday cage. Because the electrostatic discharge of terrestrial lightning superheats the air to plasma temperatures along the length of the discharge channel in a short duration, kinetic theory dictates gaseous molecules undergo a rapid increase in pressure and thus expand outward from the lightning creating a shock wave audible as thunder.
Since the sound waves propagate not from a single point source but along the length of the lightning's path, the sound origin's varying distances from the observer can generate a rolling or rumbling effect.
Perception of the sonic characteristics is further complicated by factors such as the irregular and possibly branching geometry of the lightning channel, by acoustic echoing from terrain, and by the usually multiple-stroke characteristic of the lightning strike.
An observer can approximate the distance to the strike by timing the interval between the visible lightning and the audible thunder it generates. A flash preceding thunder by five seconds would indicate a distance of approximately 1.
Consequently, a lightning strike observed at a very close distance will be accompanied by a sudden clap of thunder, with almost no perceptible time lapse, possibly accompanied by the smell of ozone O 3.
Anecdotally, there are many examples of people saying 'the storm was directly overhead or all-around and yet there was no thunder'.
Since thunderclouds can be up to 20 km high,  lightning occurring high up in the cloud may appear close but is actually too far away to produce noticeable thunder.
In the same year University of Florida and Florida Tech researchers used an array of electric field and X-ray detectors at a lightning research facility in North Florida to confirm that natural lightning makes X-rays in large quantities during the propagation of stepped leaders.
The cause of the X-ray emissions is still a matter for research, as the temperature of lightning is too low to account for the X-rays observed.
A number of observations by space-based telescopes have revealed even higher energy gamma ray emissions, the so-called terrestrial gamma-ray flashes TGFs.
These observations pose a challenge to current theories of lightning, especially with the recent discovery of the clear signatures of antimatter produced in lightning.
The very high temperatures generated by lightning lead to significant local increases in ozone and oxides of nitrogen.
Volcanic activity produces lightning-friendly conditions in multiple ways. The enormous quantity of pulverized material and gases explosively ejected into the atmosphere creates a dense plume of particles.
The ash density and constant motion within the volcanic plume produces charge by frictional interactions triboelectrification , resulting in very powerful and very frequent flashes as the cloud attempts to neutralize itself.
Due to the extensive solid material ash content, unlike the water rich charge generating zones of a normal thundercloud, it is often called a dirty thunderstorm.
Intense forest fires, such as those seen in the —20 Australian bushfire season , can create their own weather systems that can produce lightning and other weather phenomena.
Cooler air is drawn in by this turbulent, rising air, helping to cool the plume. The rising plume is further cooled by the lower atmospheric pressure at high altitude, allowing the moisture in it to condense into cloud.
Pyrocumulonimbus clouds form in an unstable atmosphere. These weather systems can produce dry lightning, fire tornadoes , intense winds and dirty hail.
Lightning has been observed within the atmospheres of other planets , such as Jupiter and Saturn.
Although in the minority on Earth, superbolts appear to be common on Jupiter. Lightning on Venus has been a controversial subject after decades of study.
During the Soviet Venera and U. Pioneer missions of the s and s, signals suggesting lightning may be present in the upper atmosphere were detected.
Radio pulses recorded by the spacecraft Venus Express which began orbiting Venus in April may originate from lightning on Venus.
Thunder is heard as a rolling, gradually dissipating rumble because the sound from different portions of a long stroke arrives at slightly different times.
When the local electric field exceeds the dielectric strength of damp air about 3 megavolts per meter , electrical discharge results in a strike , often followed by commensurate discharges branching from the same path.
Mechanisms that cause the charges to build up to lightning are still a matter of scientific investigation. Rison Lightning may be caused by the circulation of warm moisture-filled air through electric fields.
Researchers at the University of Florida found that the final one-dimensional speeds of 10 flashes observed were between 1.
The earliest detector invented to warn of the approach of a thunderstorm was the lightning bell. Lightening vs. Marko Ticak. Lightening is the present participle of the verb lighten.
Lightning is the electrical discharge that happens during storms. Adding mirrors to a room can have a lightening effect. Paul rushed and picked up the other end of the table, lightening the load for Peter.
The Smithsonian. Once lightning hits, the electromagnetic waves travel through two copper coils at right angles, inducing a current.
When New York rapper Azealia Banks took to Facebook this month to defend her use of skin-lightening products, she came armed with claims of hypocrisy.Journal of Optical Technology. Rakov and Umanpp. The Nature of Ball Lightning. Archived from the original on Pokerstars Hud 24, Retrieved November 25,